NUR 2063 Essentials of Pathophysiology Final Exam – Ramussen


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NUR 2063 Essentials of Pathophysiology Final Exam – Ramussen

184 Question and Answers

  1. Neither recessive nor dominant—co-dominant.
  2. blood flow reestablished to quickly
  3. Life-threatening complication of many conditions
  4. thyroid gland – T3, T4, calcitonin parathyroid gland – parathyroid hormone
  5. altered level of consciousness BP drops
  6. chest pain that occurs while a person is at rest and not exerting himself does not get better
  7. Abnormally low white blood cell count
  8. damage to the alveoli air can get in, but not out emphysema lecture
  9. Manifestations
  10. Not enough ADH
  11. Homozygous.
  12. Frequently caused by aspirin—prevents the conversion of prostaglandins, which stimulate leukotriene release, a powerful bronchoconstrictor.
  13. pulmonary edema, wet coughing, shortness of breath, and dyspnea
  14. Result from direct injury to the spinal cord or indirectly from damage to surrounding bones, tissues, or blood vessels.
  15. high blood pressure damages two organs
  16. Tends to be more sudden and severe
  17. Chronic inflammatory disease characterized by thickening and hardening of the arterial wall.
  18. kidney injury and prerenal injury can lead to
  19. Second most common blood cancer
  20. Increased volume in the cranial cavity
  21. Thalassemia major is the most severe form of beta thalassemia. It develops when beta globin genes are missing. The symptoms of thalassemia major generally appear before a child’s second birthday. The severe anemia related to this condition can be life-threatening.
  22. Left ventricle cannot maintain adequate cardiac output.
  23. decreased blood volume
  24. Blue bloaters”
  25. Prolonged elevation in blood pressure.
  26. strokes caused by blockage in a blood vessel in the brain Ischemic damage is permanent
  27. Staging
  28. make glucagon – helps raise blood sugar levels
  29. has Reed-Sternberg cells
  30. Manifestations: dyspnea, labored and shallow respirations, rales, productive cough with frothy sputum, hypoxia, cyanosis, fever, hypotension, tachycardia, restlessness, confusion, lethargy, and anxiety
  31. inflammation of the meninges
  32. damage to the brain caused by a different disorder injury responding to something else
  33. Another word for homeostasis
  34. No Reed-Sternberg cells
  35. objective evidence of disease such as a fever
  36. Primary Infection
  37. Caused by a reaction to substances at work.
  38. Debilitating chronic disorders characterized by irreversible, progressive tissue degeneration and airway obstruction.
  39. shows brain’s electrical activity by positioning electrodes over the scalp
  40. Vary depending on the degree of damage and the specific nerves affected.
  41. Heterozygous.
  42. paralysis caused by damage to the area of the brain responsible for movement no cure can be first noticed in utero
  43. A condition that occurs when there is widespread dilation of the small arterioles, small venules, or both.
  44. make insulin – take glucose into cells
  45. Manifestations
  46. Acquired outside the hospital or healthcare setting
  47. Most common form Develops gradually over time
  48. Decreased blood volume or circulatory stagnation resulting in inadequate tissue and organ perfusion
  49. Makes protein
  50. Rapidly developing respiratory failure
  51. acidosis alkalosis respiratory metabolic
  52. widespread simultaneous bleeding and clotting
  53. Result from meningeal irritation and neurologic damage.
  54. level of consciousness
  55. What to do if a suspected spinal cord injury
  56. oxygen levels are down CO2 levels are up
  57. X-linked recessive bleeding disorder
  58. Venous return reduces because of external blood volume losses.
  59. Manifestations: leukopenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, lymphadenopathy, joint swelling, bone pain, weight loss, anorexia, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, and central nervous system dysfunction
  60. fast metabolism weight loss thin agitated elevated HR hot
  61. a hormone cascade pathway that helps regulate blood pressure and blood volume kidney secretes it
  62. An inflammation of the skin caused by having contact with allergens
  63. Confined to a single lobe
  64. pressure inside the skull swelling in brain
  65. inflammation of the appendix right lower quadrant pain
  66. Develops more than 48 hours after a hospital admission
  67. the gland that secretes ADH Anti-diuretic hormone also called vasopressin
  68. syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone too much ADH
  69. Affects primarily adults
  70. chest pain that persists shoulder pain jaw pain
  71. 22-26
  72. pH below 7.35
  73. pH above 7.45
  74. subjective evidence of a disease, such as pain or a headache
  75. Causes: infectious agents, injurious agents or events, and pulmonary secretion stasis
  76. Excessive allergic reaction
  77. Complications: myocardial infarction, heart failure, dysrhythmias, and sudden death
  78. occurs when a blood vessel in the brain leaks or ruptures; also known as a bleed
  79. both sides of heart failure will cause this to be compromised
  80. Inflammation of the tracheobronchial tree or large bronchi
  81. Occurs in the areas between the alveoli
  82. demyelination – destruction to the myelin sheath disruptions in nerve impulse conduction
  83. calcium and phosphorus are stored there
  84. “Pink puffers.”
  85. Causes: impaired gag reflex, improper lower esophageal sphincter closure, inappropriate gastric tube placement
  86. system wide infection severe inflammation due to a pathogen
  87. atherosclerotic plaque builds up and damages the endothelium of the coronary arteries
  88. stress hormone released by the adrenal glands on kidneys
  89. computed tomography scan
  90. Narrowing of the peripheral vessels
  91. A genetic disorder that is present at birth and affects both the respiratory and digestive systems. excessive amounts of mucus in lungs
  92. Inflammation of the brain and spinal cord, usually resulting from an infection.
  93. fatigue pale shortness of breath heavy breathing
  94. a condition caused by prolonged exposure to high levels of cortisol
  95. chest pain that occurs when a person is active or under severe stress will get better
  96. pressure change in lungs
  97. A condition associated with closed TBIs momentary interruption of brain function
  98. emphysema chronic bronchitis
  99. damage directly to the brain
  100. Atherosclerotic changes of the coronary arteries
  101. increased intensity or frequency, does not go away with demand reduction, or occurs at rest
  102. Peripheral edema (legs and hands common)
  103. two kinds:
  104. An immunological disorder in which the immune system turns against itself
  105. Hypertension first seen in pregnancy
  106. Cancers affect lymphatic system
  107. A disorder of the central nervous system that affects, motor, movement, often including tremors. neurotransmitter lacking
  108. another name for stroke oxygen and blood flow is lacking to the brain
  109. air sacs in the lung where gas exchange occurs.
  110. inflammation of the bladder
  111. Seizure: transient physical or behavior alteration that results from an abnormal electrical activity in the brain
  112. swollen, varicose veins at the lower end of the esophagus liver is the problem
  113. can’t be changed age, family history
  114. electrolytes that are higher concentrated within the cell
  115. cancer cells that spread
  116. low oxygen extreme pain trouble breathing hemoglobin is crescent shaped
  117. lungs – narrow and constrict capillary – dilate / increase
  118. loss of bone density
  119. Death of the myocardium.
  120. Manifestations: cyanotic or plethoric skin, high blood pressure, tachycardia, dyspnea, headaches, visual abnormalities
  121. Manifestations: productive and nonproductive cough, dyspnea, wheezing, low-grade fever, pharyngitis, malaise, and chest discomfort
  122. First stage – clotting vascular spasm Platelets aggregate
  123. Epilepsy: seizure disorder resulting from spontaneous firing of abnormal neurons; characterized by recurrent seizures for which there is no underlying or correctable cause
  124. Chronic disorder that results in intermittent, reversible airway obstruction
  125. the inability to control the voiding of urine under physical stress such as running, sneezing, laughing, or coughing
  126. Inflammation of the meninges, usually resulting from an infection.
  127. compression or severing to the spinal cord disc herniation
  128. A decrease of plasma protein. The pressure change causes a fluid shift.
  129. Cervical injuries can affect both the upper and lower extremities and include breathing difficulties, loss of normal bowel and bladder control, paresthesia, sensory changes, spasticity, pain, weakness, paralysis, blood pressure instability, temperature fluctuations, and diaphoresis.
  130. Results from a decreased number of erythrocytes, reduction of hemoglobin, or presence of abnormal
  131. Respiratory Opposite Metabolic Equal
  132. low blood sodium neurological problems
  133. Usually caused by a sudden and violent blow or jolt to the head (closed injury) or a penetrating (open injury) head wound that disrupts the normal brain function.
  134. Affects primarily adults
  135. low platelet count
  136. inflammation of the lungs immunocompromised people are most at risk for this
  137. sudden symptoms of insufficient blood supply to the heart indicating unstable angina or acute myocardial infarction
  138. Diagnosis: history, physical examination (including using the Glasgow Coma scale), head computed tomography, head magnetic resonance imaging, and ICP monitoring
  139. clot or other material lodges in vessels of the lung
  140. Increased IgE synthesis and airway inflammation, resulting in mast cell destruction and inflammatory mediator release.
  141. Manifestations: hypoventilation, hypoxemia, cyanosis, hypercapnia, polycythemia, clubbing of fingers, dyspnea at rest, wheezing, edema, weight gain, malaise, chest pain, and fever
  142. Manifestations: fever, chills, mental status changes, nausea, vomiting, photophobia, severe headache, stiff neck (meningismus), agitation, bulging fontanel, decreased consciousness, opisthotonos (abnormal positioning that involves rigidity and severe arching of the back with the head thrown backward), poor feeding or irritability in children, tachypnea, and rash
  143. Abnormally high erythrocytes
  144. Caused by the bacillus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  145. Secondary infection
  146. Usually occurs between 3:00 and 7:00 a.m.
  147. 7.35-7.45
  148. Leads to DVT venous Stasis (sluggish), increase blood coagulation, damage to vein wall (endothelial damage)
  149. electrocardiogram diagnostic tool used for Myocardial Infarction looks at 12 angles
  150. involves the compression of nerves and blood vessels due to swelling within the enclosed space created by the fascia that separates groups of muscles
  151. Manifestations: dyspnea upon exertion, diminished breath sounds, wheezing, chest tightness, tachypnea, hypoxia, hypercapnia, increased anterior-posterior thoracic diameter (from 1:2 to 1:1), activity intolerance, anorexia, and malaise
  152. goes away with demand reduction
  153. which factor involved with Hemophilia A
  154. A DVT in the lower extremity can cause this
  155. air in pleural space
  156. inflammation of the brain tissue
  157. change in level of consciousness can do an EEG
  158. Complications
  159. Not an allergic reaction
  160. Affects primarily children
  161. Most common form of dementia.
  162. Affects primarily adults
  163. Manifestations
  164. Usually occurs 10-15 minutes after activity.
  165. The process of inspiration and expiration
  166. changeable or controllable life style, smoking, diet
  167. mom to baby
  168. Controls fight or flight response Heart rate increases
  169. complicated condition that can occur when someone has severe sepsis or septic shock.
  170. Manifestations: tissue ischemia and abnormal bleeding
  171. constipation tired gain weight cold
  172. Life-threatening condition resulting in severe lung damage and nutrition deficits
  173. Manifestations: productive cough, hemoptysis, night sweats, fever, chills, fatigue, unexplained weight loss, anorexia, and symptoms depending on other organ involvement
  174. Autosomal dominant inheritance
  175. Inadequate pumping
  176. A form of peripheral vascular disease in which there is partial or total blockage of an artery, usually one leading to a leg or arm.
  177. Manifestations
  178. wheezing SOB – shortness of breath cough
  179. Manifestations: meconium ileus, salty skin, steatorrhea, fat-soluble vitamin deficiency, chronic cough, hypoxia, fatigue, activity intolerance, audible rhonchi, and delayed growth and development
  180. Most frequent type
  181. yellow skin yellow sclera
  182. Air in the pleural cavity
  183. 35-45
  184. Especially intense form