NURS 6501N Midterm Exam – Question and Answers

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NURS 6501 Midterm Exam – Question and Answers (Spring 2020)

  1. What is the blood type of a person who is heterozygous, having A and B alleles as codominant?
  2. The data reporting that sickle cell disease affects approximately 1 in 600 American blacks is an example of which concept?
  3. A patient is having a spirometry measurement done and asks the healthcare professional to explain this test. What response by the professional is best?
  4. A healthcare professional is caring for a patient undergoing chemotherapy. What is the skin-related health risk the professional should assess the patient for and be prepared to treat?
  5. A professor has taught the students about the sources of increased ammonia in patients with hepatic encephalopathy. What statement by a student indicates the professor should review this material?
  6. What-is the second most commonly recognized genetic cause of intellectual disability?
  7. What is the role of reverse transcriptase in HIV infection?
  8. Which renal change is found in older adults?
  9. In regulating vascular mediators released from mast cells, the role of eosinophils is to release what?
  10. Under anaerobic conditions, what process provides energy for the cell?
  11. A patient had a motor vehicle crash and suffered critical injuries to the brainstem. What physiological responses would the healthcare professional expect to see?
  12. A parent wants to know how to prevent type 1 diabetes in the newborn. The healthcare professional explains that prevention is not possible, because which of these is a major characteristic of type 1 diabetes mellitus?
  13. A patient has a pulmonary capillary wedge pressure of 30mmHg. What assessment finding by the healthcare professional would be most consistent with this reading?
  14. A patient is having an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction. What action by the healthcare professional is best?
  15. A healthcare professional is educating a patient on asthma. The professional tells the patient that the most successful treatment for chronic asthma begins with which action?
  16. A student asks the healthcare professional to explain the pathophysiologic process of alcoholic cirrhosis. What statement by the professional would not be consistent with complete knowledge about this process?
  17. The pathophysiologic process of edema is related to which mechanism?
  18. How does progressive nephron injury affect angiotensin II activity?
  19. A student asks the professor to explain what effect natriuretic peptides have during heart failure when the heart dilates. Which response by the professor is best?
  20. When renin is released, it is capable of which action?
  21. What is the initiating event that leads to the development of atherosclerosis?
  22. The glomerular filtration rate is directly related to which factor?
  23. What mechanisms occur in the liver cells as a result of lipid accumulation?
  24. A person wants to know if eating only plant-based foods is advisable as a way to cut cholesterol to near-zero levels. What response by the health care professional is best?
  25. The Bainbridge reflex is thought to be initiated by sensory neurons in which cardiac location?
  26. A patient has a serum sodium level of 165 mEq/L. The healthcare professional explains that the clinical manifestations of confusion, convulsions, cerebral hemorrhage, and coma are caused by what mechanism?
  27. A person has hypothyroidism. What chemical does the healthcare professional advise the person to include in the diet?
  28. During the cardiac cycle, why do the aortic and pulmonic valves close after the ventricles relax?
  29. If a patient develops acidosis, the nurse would expect the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve to react in which manner?
  30. What does vomiting-induced metabolic alkalosis cause?
  31. What is one function of the tumor cell marker?
  32. A patient suffered multiple traumatic injuries and received many blood transfusions within a few days of the injuries. For which medical condition should the healthcare professional monitor the patient for?
  33. A pregnant woman has Graves disease. What test/s does the healthcare professional advise the woman about?
  34. A healthcare professional is caring for a patient who has a delay in electrical activity reaching the ventricle as seen on ECG. What ECG finding would the healthcare professional associate with this problem?
  35. A healthcare professional tells a student that a patient has lost atrial kick. What would the student expect to see when examining this patient?
  36. A patient has diabetes mellitus. A recent urinalysis showed increased amounts of protein. What therapy does the healthcare provider educate the patient that is specific to this disorder?
  37. A healthcare professional is caring for four patients. Which patient does the professional assess for neurogenic diabetes insipidus (DI)?
  38. How do free radicals cause cell damage?
  39. A student studying biology asks the professor to describe how the ras gene is involved in cancer proliferation. What explanation by the professor is best?
  40. A patient has a peptic ulcer related to h. pylori bacteria. What treatment does the healthcare professional educate the patient on?
  41. A patient in the hospital has hypernatremia. What condition should the healthcare professional assess for?
  42. A patient is in severe shock and is receiving vasopressin. A student asks the health care professional to explain the rationale for this treatment. What response by the professional is most accurate?
  43. A student is preparing to irrigate a patient’s wound and gathers supplies, including hydrogen peroxide. What response by the health care professional is best?
  44. A healthcare professional cares for older adults in a skilled nursing facility.
  45. What should the professional assess for in these individuals related to cardiovascular functioning?
  46. Which statement made by a student indicates the healthcare professional needs to describe the pericardium again?
  47. Where is two thirds of the body’s water found?
  48. A healthcare professional is caring for four patients. Which patient does the professional assess for pulmonary emboli (PE) as the priority?
  49. A patient has been diagnosed with a renal stone. Based on knowledge of common stone types, what self-care measure does the healthcare professional plan to teach the patient when stone analysis has returned?
  50. What is the inflammatory effect of nitric oxide (NO)?
  51. What is the cause of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH)?
  52. During acidosis, the body compensates for the increase in serum hydrogen ions by shifting hydrogen ions into the cell in exchange for which electrolyte?
  53. Which chamber of the heart endures the highest pressures?
  54. When endothelial cells are injured, what alteration contributes to atherosclerosis?
  55. What is the cause of functional dysphagia?
  56. A patient diagnosed with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) has the following laboratory values: arterial pH 7.20; serum glucose 500 mg/dL; positive urine glucose and ketones; serum potassium (K +) 2 mEq/L; serum sodium (Na +) 130 mEq/L. Thepatient reports that he has been sick with the flu for 1 week. What relationship do these values have to his insulin deficiency?
  57. What is one function of the tumor cell marker?
  58. A student asks about the mechanism that results in type II hypersensitivity reactions. What description by the professor is best?
  59. What physical sign does the healthcare professional relate to the result of turbulent blood flow through a vessel?
  60. Which hormone is require for water to be reabsorbed in the distal tubule and collecting duct?
  61. A patient asks the healthcare professional why tissue damage occurs in acute rejection after organ transplantation. What response by the professional is best?
  62. What are blood pressure variations associate with?
  63. A class of students has learned about contributing factors to duodenal ulcers. What statement indicates to the professor that the students need a review?
  64. Renal failure is the most common cause of which type of hyperparathyroidism?
  65. An amniocentesis indicates a neural tube defect when an increase in which protein is evident?
  66. A healthcare professional wants to determine the adequacy of a person’s alveolar ventilation. What assessment finding is most important for the professional to consider?
  67. What is an expected change in the cardiovascular system that occurs with aging?
  68. Oxygenated blood flows through which vessel?
  69. A patient’s urinalysis came back positive for glucose. What does the healthcare professional expect the patient’s blood glucose to be at a minimum?
  70. A student asks the healthcare professional to explain the function of the papillary muscles. What response by the professional is best?
  71. The healthcare professional explains to a student that the amount of volume of blood in the heart is directly related to the of contraction.
  72. A healthcare professional is caring for a patient who has continuous increases in left ventricular filing pressures. What disorder would the professional assess the patient for?
  73. What pathologic change occurs to the kidney’s glomeruli as a result of hypertension?
  74. A student asks why some vaccinations are given orally and some are given by injection. What response by the professor is best?
  75. A patient has a history of excessive use of magnesium-containing antacids and aluminum-containing antacids. What lab value does the healthcare professional correlate to this behavior?
  76. A student asks the healthcare professional to describe exotoxins. Which statementby the professional is best?
  77. What are tumor cell markers?
  78. The acute inflammatory response is characterized by fever that is produced by the hypothalamus being affected by what?
  79. A healthcare professional is educating a patient about asthma. The professional states that good control is necessary due to which pathophysiologic process?
  80. The student asks the professor to explain what characteristic is demonstrated by lungs with decreased compliance?
  81. The action of platelet-derived growth factor is to stimulate the production of which cells?
  82. A healthcare professional tells the student that a properly placed endotracheal tube for mechanical ventilation is 5 to 7 cm above the tracheal bifurcation. Where does this bifurcation occur?
  83. Surfactant produced by type II alveolar cells facilitates alveolar distention and ventilation by which mechanism?
  84. A patient is brought to the Emergency Department with a gunshot wound to the chest. The healthcare professional assesses an abnormality involving a pleural rupture that acts as a one-way valve, permitting air to enter on inspiration but preventing its escape by closing during expiration. What action by the healthcare professional is the priority?
  85. A professor has taught the students about the pathogenesis of abdominal pain. Which statement by a student indicates the professor needs to review the material?
  86. People diagnosed with neurofibromatosis have varying degrees of the condition because of which genetic principle?
  87. A student asks the professor how a faulty negative-feedback mechanism results in a hormonal imbalance. What response by the professor is best?
  88. A healthcare professional is working with a person who drinks several 6-packs of beer a week. What testing does the professional encourage the person to get?
  89. Which characteristic is the most important determinant of immunogenicity when considering the antigen?
  90. A patient has portal hypertension-induced splenomegaly. Which lab value would the healthcare professional associate with this condition?
  91. Why is leakage of lysosomal enzymes during chemical injuries significant?
  92. What is the most important cause of pulmonary artery constriction?
  93. Autocrine stimulation is the ability of cancer cells to do what?
  94. Neurotransmitters affect the postsynaptic membrane by binding to which structure?
  95. A healthcare provider notes that tapping the patient’s facial nerve leads to lip twitching. What electrolyte value is correlate with this finding?
  96. During cell injury caused by hypoxia, why does an increase in the osmotic pressure within the cell occur?
  97. A female patient has been diagnose with an uncomplicated urinary tract infection. What self-care measure does the healthcare provider teach the patient that is specific to this type of infection?
  98. A healthcare professional is conducting community education on vaccinations. Which statement about vaccines does the professional include in the presentation?
  99. A patient reports dumping syndrome after a partial gastrectomy. What does the healthcare professional teach this patient?
  100. Once they have penetrated the first line of defense, which microorganisms do natural killer (NK) cells actively attack?
  101. Free radicals play a major role in the initiation and progression of which diseases?
  102. Check out our latest courses on PSYC 502 Week 3.