NR 508 Midterm Exam – Question and Answers Set 1


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NR 508 Advanced Pharm Question and Answers

  1. A patient who has primary hyperlipidemia and who takes atorvastatin (Lipitor) continues to have LDL cholesterol of 140 mg/dL after 3 months of therapy. The primary care NP increases the dose from 10 mg daily to 20 mg daily. The patient reports headache and dizziness a few weeks after the dose increase. The NP should:
  2. A patient who has hyperlipidemia has been taking atorvastatin (Lipitor) 60 mg daily for 6 months. The patient’s initial lipid profile showed LDL of 180 mg/dL, HDL of 45 mg/dL, and triglycerides of 160 mg/dL. The primary care NP orders a lipid profile today that shows LDL of 105 mg/dL, HDL of 50 mg/dL, and triglycerides of 120 mg/dL. The patient reports muscle pain and weakness. The NP should:
  3. A patient comes to the clinic with a 4-day history of 10 to 12 liquid stools each day. The patient reports seeing blood and mucus in the stools. The patient has had nausea but no vomiting. The primary care NP notes a temperature of 37.9° C, a heart rate of 96 beats per minute, and a blood pressure of 90/60 mm Hg. A physical examination reveals dry oral mucous membranes and capillary refill of 4 seconds. The NP’s priority should be to:
  4. A perimenopausal woman tells the primary care NP that she is having hot flashes and increasingly severe mood swings. The woman has had a hysterectomy. The NP should prescribe:
  5. A primary care NP prescribes a nitroglycerin transdermal patch, 0.4 mg/hour release, for a patient with chronic stable angina. The NP should teach the patient to:
  6. A parent calls a clinic for advice about giving over-the-counter cough medicine to a 6-year-old child. The parent tells the NP that the medication label does not give instructions about how much to give a child. The NP should:
  7. A patient who has disabling intermittent claudication is not a candidate for surgery. Which of the following medications should the primary care NP prescribes to treat this patient?
  8. The primary care NP prescribes an extended-cycle monophasic pill regimen for a young woman who reports having multiple partners. Which statement by the patient indicates she understands the regimen?
  9. The primary care NP prescribes an inhaled corticosteroid for a patient who has asthma. The third-party payer for this patient denies coverage for the brand that comes in the specific strength the NP prescribes. The NP should:
  10. A primary care NP prescribes levothyroxine for a patient to treat thyroid deficiency. When teaching this patient about the medication, the NP should:
  11. A patient who has had four to five liquid stools per day for 4 days is seen by the primary care NP. The patient asks about medications to stop diarrhea. The NP tells the patient that antidiarrheal medications are:
  12. The primary care NP sees a patient covered by Medicaid, writes a prescription for a medication, and is informed by the pharmacist that the medication is “off-formulary.” The NP should:
  13. A patient who has type 2 diabetes mellitus takes metformin (Glucophage). The patient tells the primary care NP that he will have surgery in a few weeks. The NP should recommend:
  14. A thin 52-year-old woman who has recently had a hysterectomy tells the primary care NP she is having frequent hot flashes and vaginal dryness. A recent bone density study shows early osteopenia. The woman’s mother had CHD. She has no family history of breast cancer. The NP should prescribe:
  15. A patient who has diabetic gastroparesis sees a gastroenterology specialist who orders metoclopramide (Reglan). Within 24 hours, the patient describes having extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) to the primary care NP. The NP will contact the gastroenterologist and should expect to prescribe:
  16. The primary care NP is preparing to prescribe isosorbide dinitrate sustained-release (Dilatrate SR) for a patient who has chronic, stable angina. The NP should recommend initial dosing of:
  17. A patient who has hypothyroidism has been taking levothyroxine 50 mcg daily for 2 weeks. The patient reports continued fatigue. The primary care NP should:
  18. The primary care NP has referred a child who has significant gastrointestinal reflux disease to a specialist for consideration for a fundoplication and gastrostomy tube placement. The child’s weight is 80% of what is recommended for age, and a recent swallow study revealed significant risk for aspiration. The child’s parents do not want the procedure. The NP should:
  19. A female patient who is underweight tells the primary care NP that she has been using bisacodyl (Dulcolax) daily for several years. The NP should:
  20. A patient takes a cardiac medication that has a very narrow therapeutic range. The primary care NP learns that the particular brand the patient is taking is no longer covered by the patient’s medical plan. The NP knows that the bioavailability of the drug varies from brand to brand. The NP should:
  21. A patient is in the clinic for a follow-up examination after a myocardial infarction (MI). The patient has a history of left ventricular systolic dysfunction. The primary care NP should expect this patient to be taking:
  22. A male patient tells the primary care NP he is experiencing decreased libido, lack of energy, and poor concentration. The NP performs an examination and notes increased body fat and gynecomastia. A serum testosterone level is 225 ng/dL. The NP’s next action should be to:
  23. An African-American patient is taking captopril (Capoten) 25 mg twice daily. When performing a physical examination, the primary care nurse practitioner (NP) learns that the patient continues to have blood pressure readings of 135/90 mm Hg. The NP should:
  24. A 50-year-old woman who is postmenopausal is taking an aromatase inhibitor as part of a breast cancer treatment regimen. She calls her primary care NP to report that she has had hot flashes and increased vaginal discharge but no bleeding. The NP should:
  25. A 40-year-old patient is in the clinic for a routine physical examination. The patient has a body mass index (BMI) of 26. The patient is active and walks a dog daily. A lipid profile reveals low-density lipoprotein (LDL) of 100 mg/dL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) of 30 mg/dL, and triglycerides of 250 mg/dL. The primary care nurse practitioner (NP) should:
  26. The primary care NP is seeing a patient for a hospital follow-up after the patient has had a first myocardial infarction. The patient has a list of the prescribed medications and tells the NP that “no one explained anything about them.” The NP’s initial response should be to:
  27. A man with a BMI of 38 and a waist size of 48 inches is seen in the clinic for an annual well check-up. The primary care NP orders laboratory tests and notes a fasting plasma glucose of 110 mg/dL, triglyceride level of 220 mg/dL, and high-density lipoprotein level of 40 mg/dL. The man’s blood pressure is 160/110 mm Hg. The man has a history of cardiovascular disease and tells the NP he has tried to lose weight numerous times. The NP should consider:
  28. A primary care NP orders thyroid function tests. The patient’s TSH is 1.2 microunits/mL, and T4 is 1.7 ng/mL. The NP should:
  29. A postmenopausal woman develops NSAID-induced ulcer. The primary care NP should prescribe:
  30. A patient who is newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus has not responded to changes in diet or exercise. The patient is mildly obese and has a fasting blood glucose of 130 mg/dL. The patient has normal renal function tests. The primary care NP plans to prescribe a combination product. Which of the following is indicated for this patient?
  31. A patient comes to the clinic to discuss weight loss. The primary care NP notes a BMI of 32 and performs a health risk assessment that reveals no obesity-related risk factors. The NP should recommend:
  32. A patient has been using an herbal supplement for 2 years that the primary care NP knows may have toxic side effects. The NP should:
  33. A patient who has insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes reports having difficulty keeping blood glucose within normal limits and has had multiple episodes of both hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. As adjunct therapy to manage this problem, the primary care NP should prescribe:
  34. A patient who takes spironolactone for heart failure has begun taking digoxin (Lanoxin) for atrial fibrillation. The primary care NP provides teaching for this patient and asks the patient to repeat back what has been learned. Which statement by the patient indicates an understanding of the teaching?
  35. A patient who is taking nifedipine develops mild edema of both feet. The primary care NP should contact the patient’s cardiologist to discuss:
  36. A patient who has atrial fibrillation (AF) has been taking warfarin (Coumadin). The primary care nurse practitioner (NP) plans to change the patient’s medication to dabigatran (Pradaxa). To do this safely, the NP should:
  37. A patient who takes an ACE inhibitor and a thiazide diuretic for hypertension will begin taking spironolactone. The primary care NP should counsel this patient to:
  38. A patient has been taking furosemide 80 mg once daily for 4 weeks and returns for a follow-up visit. The primary care NP notes a blood pressure of 100/60 mm Hg. The patient’s lungs are clear, and there is no peripheral edema. The patient’s serum potassium is 3.4 mEq/L. The NP should:
  39. The primary care NP is reviewing evidence-based recommendations about the off-label use of a particular drug. Which recommendation should influence the NP’s decision about prescribing the medication?
  40. A patient who has a history of chronic constipation uses a bulk laxative to prevent episodes of acute constipation. The patient reports having an increased frequency of episodes. The primary care NP should recommend:
  41. A primary care NP sees a 5-year-old child who is morbidly obese. The child has an elevated hemoglobin A1c and increased lipid levels. Both of the child’s parents are overweight but not obese, and they tell the NP that they see nothing wrong with their child. They both state that it is difficult to refuse their child’s requests for soda or ice cream. The NP should:
  42. A 55-year-old patient with no prior history of hypertension has a blood pressure greater than 140/90 on three separate occasions. The patient does not smoke, has a body mass index of 24, and exercises regularly. The patient has no known risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The primary care NP should:
  43. A patient who has diabetes mellitus and congestive heart failure takes insulin and warfarin. The patient will begin taking exogenous testosterone to treat secondary hypogonadism. The primary care NP should recommend:
  44. A primary care NP sees a patient who reports having decreased frequency of stools over the past few months. In the clinic today, the patient has severe abdominal cramping and an abdominal radiograph shows an increased stool load in the sigmoid colon and rectum. The NP should:
  45. A primary care NP writes a prescription for off-label use for a drug. To help ensure compliance, the NP should:
  46. A patient wants to know why a cheaper version of a drug cannot be used when the primary care NP writes a prescription for a specific brand name of the drug and writes, “Dispense as Written.” The NP should explain that a different brand of this drug:
  47. A 2-year-old child has chronic “toddler’s” diarrhea, which has an unknown but benign etiology. The child’s parent asks the primary care NP if a medication can be used to treat the child’s symptoms. The NP should recommend giving:
  48. A primary care NP has prescribed phentermine for a patient who is obese. The patient loses 10 lb in the first month but reports that the drug does not seem to be suppressing appetite as much as before. The NP should:
  49. A patient is newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The primary care NP reviews this patient’s laboratory tests and notes normal renal function, increased triglycerides, and deceased HDL levels. The NP should prescribe:
  50. A 50-year-old woman with a family history of CHD is experiencing occasional hot flashes and is having periods every 3 to 4 months. She asks the primary care NP about HT to relieve her symptoms. The NP should:
  51. A primary care NP prescribes a COCP for a woman who is taking them for the first time. After teaching, the woman should correctly state the need for using a backup form of contraception if she:
  52. A patient who is taking an oral anticoagulant is in the clinic in the late afternoon and reports having missed the morning dose of the medication because the prescription was not refilled. The primary care NP should counsel this patient to:
  53. A patient comes to the clinic with a 2-day history of cough and wheezing. The patient has no previous history of asthma. The patient reports having heartburn for several months, which has worsened considerably. The primary care NP makes a diagnosis of asthma and orders oral steroids and inhaled albuterol. The patient’s condition worsens, and a chest radiograph obtained 2 days later shows bilateral infiltrates. The NP has failed to:
  54. A 5-year-old child has chronic constipation. The primary care NP plans to prescribe a laxative for long-term management. In addition to pharmacologic therapy, the NP should also recommend _____ g of fiber per day.
  55. A patient in the clinic reports heartburn 30 minutes after meals, a feeling of fullness, frequent belching, and a constant sour taste. The patient has a normal weight and reports having a high-stress job. The primary care NP should recommend:
  56. A patient who has angina is taking nitroglycerin and long-acting nifedipine. The primary care NP notes a persistent blood pressure of 90/60 mm Hg at several follow-up visits. The patient reports lightheadedness associated with standing up. The NP should consult with the patient’s cardiologist about changing the medication to:
  57. A 40-year-old woman tells the primary care nurse practitioner (NP) that she does not want more children and would like a contraceptive. She does not smoke and has no personal or family history of cardiovascular disease. She has frequent tension headaches. For this patient, the NP should prescribe:
  58. A woman who has been taking a COCP tells the primary care NP that, because of frequent changes in her work schedule, she has difficulty remembering to take her pills. The woman and the NP decide to change to a vaginal ring. The NP will instruct her to insert the ring:
  59. A patient who has severe arthritis and who takes nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) daily develops a duodenal ulcer. The patient has tried a cyclooxygenase-2 selective NSAID in the past and states that it is not as effective as the current NSAID. The primary care nurse practitioner (NP) should:
  60. A patient in the clinic develops sudden shortness of breath and tachycardia. The primary care NP notes thready pulses, poor peripheral perfusion, and a decreased level of consciousness. The NP activates the emergency medical system and should anticipate that this patient will receive: